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Theories of Human Motivation

Theories of Human Motivation


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I have heard the true saying that without motivation, there will be no action on anything which needs to be done. I can't remember where I heard it but I have wondered about what help there can be to remove motivational barriers.

I know of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs and then I came across Szondi's Drive Diagnostic Test which made me wonder. What other theories and methods are out there?


There are many different possible obstacles to motivation:

  • Physical issues,
  • Emotional Issues,
  • Environmental Issues,
  • Relationship Issues,
  • Personality Issues,
  • Historical Experience,
  • Financial Issues, and
  • Practical Issues;

and they all need to be borne in mind. We could look at Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, however, studies in motivation started long before he came up with this.

The link you provided gives a lot of what you are asking about.

Sigmund Freud, as far back as 1927 said that a drive theory was what was lacking most in psychoanalysis. He rejected systematics in psychology as a form of paranoia, and spoke of the drives towards life and death; and sexual/ego drives (Mélon, 1996).

Yet, from 1927 to 1935, Hungarian psychiatrist and psychologist, Leopold Szondi aimed at working towards a systematic drive theory and he developed a “Drive Diagnostic Test” (Mélon, 1996). On top of that, there were studies conducted by William McDougal in 1932 where it was suggested that a range of animal behaviours could be associated with some form of drive, developing Instinct Theories of Motivation whereby all activities, thoughts, and desires can be drawn from being caused by nature - our biological make-up (Psychology Notes HQ, 2012).

Then attempts were made by Clifford Morgan in 1943 to establish the classifications of Primary Drives (basic needs of the individual) and Secondary Drives (learned or social drives).

Later, in 1961, David McClelland stressed the importance of social needs and specifically the need for achievement, affiliation and power (Mind Tools Ltd., n.d.), whilst in 1967, Grossman proposed the categories of Homeostatic drives (internal drives of the physical body to seek and maintain a balance within its internal environment like hunger, thirst and body temperature), and Non-homeostatic drives (situations external to the body like sexual activity, and other physical or emotional arousal).

I believe Grossman's categories are categories of Morgan's Primary Drives, where McClelland's points refer to Morgan's Secondary Drives.

References

Mélon, J., 1996. Notes on the History of the Szondi Movement. [Online]
Available at: http://www.szondiforum.org/t419.htm

Mind Tools Ltd., n.d. McClelland's Human Motivation Theory. [Online]
Available at: https://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/human-motivation-theory.htm

Psychology Notes HQ, 2012. Instinct Theory of Motivation. [Online]
Available at: http://www.psychologynoteshq.com/instincttheoryofmotivation/


Below is a Brief Outline for a Project on a Theory of Motivation

  1. Introduction
    1. Describe the intent of paper and outline main ideas.
    2. Briefly describe the relevant experience you selected. Include information about the context (e.g., what you did in the organization, who you reported to, what your responsibilities were) as well as any other information relevant to understanding how the theory of motivation applies to your experience.
    1. In your own words, clearly and completely define and describe the theory.
    2. Be sure to include each element of the theory.
    1. Relate the theory to a particular experience within the organization.
      • Briefly describe a particular experience within the organization.
      • Explicitly state how the experience is related to the particular theory of motivation.
    2. Explicitly state whether or not the experience was motivating and why.
    3. Give specific behavioral responses that resulted from the experience.
    1. Now that you understand how the motivation theory was related to your experience, discuss how this theory could be applied to future experiences you will have. The idea is to use your knowledge of the theory to become more motivated in the future.
    2. Give specific examples relating each aspect of the theory to a future experience.
    1. Write a conclusion telling what you learned from this exercise.

    Overview of Theories of Motivation:

    Motivation is very important within society, especially when it involves organizations. Everyone works on a theory of motivation, what drives a person or organization to make the choices that they make. Without any kind of motivation or direction, a business or organization will not have a direction and are potentially in threat of losing business or worse. In understanding different motivations, theories, and behaviors, managers can help to direct an organization, maintain valued employees and improve overall performance, thus creating more revenue and having a positive impact on the company as a whole, thus they fulfill their own motivation.

    Related Research Paper Topics

    Human Motivation - Research papers explain the role of learning in Human Motivation, and 5 theories that provide pros and cons regarding risk-taking in human motivation.

    Theory of Work Research Papers examine a paper ordered on a specific theory of group interaction and development.

    Educational Psychology Theories - The father of humanism, Abraham Maslow is the primary source for this aspect of educational psychology, with his hierarchy of needs pyramid.

    Maslow&rsquos Hierarchy of Needs - In Maslow&rsquos Hierarchy of Needs research papers, Maslow's theory is discussed in light of employee motivation.

    Subjective Well Being - Subjective well being is a scientific concept which psychologists and other specialists use to assist individuals in assessing their lives.

    What is a Need research papers look at the Maslow hypothesis of the human need hierarchy.

    Frederick Herzberg - Research papers on Frederick Herzberg look into the American psychologist whose work became highly influential in business management.

    Leadership and Motivation - Knowledge gained after learning Leadership and Motivation concepts require reflections of your own leadership model.

    Emotions in Social Relationships - Emotions in social relationships research papers cover social goals and social emotions.

    Human Behavior research papers examine the entire range of actions or mannerisms exhibited by human beings.

    Study of Human Behavior research papers discuss the study that focuses on several of the social sciences, principally psychology, sociology, economics, and anthropology.

    How to Write a Research Paper on Theory of Motivation

    This page is designed to show you how to write a research project on the topic you see here. Learn from our sample or order a custom written research paper from Paper Masters.

    Custom Research Papers - Custom written research papers on any topic you need starting at $23.95 per page.

    Custom Research Paper Services - Learn about all of Paper Masters' custom research paper and writing services.

    End your research paper worries in less than 5 Minutes!

    Order a custom research paper on ANY topic.


    Positive Outcomes Associated With Autonomous Motivation

    By virtue of the definition of basic needs within SDT, satisfaction of these needs promotes positive psychological health. More than three decades of research has confirmed that being autonomously motivated and satisfying the psychological needs are vital to both mental and physical well-being. Greater autonomous motivation relative to controlled motivation has been linked to more positive emotions and less stress. This pattern emerges in samples of both children and adults, in countries as varied as Germany, Bulgaria, Russia, South Korea, Turkey, and the United States, among others.

    Autonomous motivation also leads to greater maintained lifestyle change, better conceptual understanding and deep learning, greater job satisfaction and performance, and higher creativity. For example, research has demonstrated that when people are autonomously motivated to eat a healthier diet and exercise more, they tend to maintain those behaviors more effectively over the long run. When students in school are more autonomously motivated, they tend to get better grades and are less likely to drop out. Employees at large companies are more likely to receive positive work evaluations when they are autonomously motivated. And the paintings and collages created by individuals whose motivation is autonomous are likely to be rated as more creative by expert judges. The merits of autonomous motivation are numerous and varied.


    Motivation

    The drive that produces goal-directed behavior.

    The study of motivation is concerned with the influences that govern the initiation, direction, intensity, and persistence of behavior. Three categories of motives have been recognized by many researchers: primary or biological (hunger and the regulation of food intake) stimulus-seeking (internal needs for cognitive, physical, and emotional stimulation, or intrinsic and extrinsic rewards) and learned (motives acquired through reward and punishment, or by observation of others).

    Instinct theories, which were popular early in the twentieth century, take a biological approach to motivation. Ethologists study instinctual animal behavior to find patterns that are unlearned, uniform in expression, and universal in a species. Similarly, instinct theory in humans emphasizes the inborn, automatic, involuntary, and unlearned processes which control and direct human behavior. Scientific development of the instinct theory consisted largely of drawing up lists of instincts. In 1908, William McDougall (1871-1938) postulated 18 human instincts within 20 years, the list of instincts had grown to 10,000. Although instinct theory has since been abandoned, its evolutionary perspective has been adopted by sociobiologists considering a wide range of human behavior, from aggression to interpersonal attraction, from the standpoint of natural selection and the survival of humans as a species.

    Drive-reduction theory, which is biologically-oriented but also encompasses learning, centers on the concept of homeostasis, or equilibrium. According to this theory, humans are constantly striving to maintain homeostasis by adjusting themselves to change. Any imbalance creates a need and a resulting drive&mdasha state of arousal that prompts action to restore the sense of balance and thereby reduce the drive. The drive called thirst, for example, prompts us to drink, after which the thirst is reduced. In drive-reduction theory, motivation is seen not just as a result of biological instincts, but rather as a combination of learning and biology. The primary drives, such as hunger and thirst, are basic physiological needs that are unlearned. However, there is also a system of learned drives known as secondary-drives that are not biological (such as the desire for money) but that prompt action in much the same way as the primary drives.

    Another biologically-oriented theory of motivation is arousal theory, which posits that each person is driven to achieve his or her optimum level of arousal, acting in ways that will increase this level when it is too low and decrease it when it is too high. Peak performance of tasks is usually associated with moderate levels of arousal. Researchers have found that difficult tasks (at which people might "freeze" from nervousness) are best accomplished at moderate arousal levels, while easier ones can be successfully completed at higher levels.

    Psychologically-oriented theories of motivation emphasize external environmental factors and the role of thoughts and expectations in motivation. Incentive theory argues that motivation results from environmental stimuli in the form of positive and negative incentives, and the value these incentives hold at a given time. Food, for example, would be a stronger incentive when a person is hungry. Cognitive theories emphasize the importance of mental processes in goal-directed behavior. Many theorists have agreed, for example, that people are more strongly motivated when they project a positive outcome to their actions. Achievement-oriented individuals learn at an early age to strive for excellence, maintain optimistic expectations, and to not be readily discouraged by failure. Conversely, individuals who consistently fear failure have been found to set goals that are too high or too low and become easily discouraged by obstacles. The concept of learned helplessness centers on how behavior is affected by the degree of control that is possible in a given situation.

    American psychologist Abraham Maslow developed a five-level hierarchy of needs, or motives, that influence human behavior. The "lower" physiological and biological urges at the bottom of the hierarchy must be at least partially satisfied before people will be motivated by those urges closer to the top. The levels in Maslow's system are as follows: 1) biological (food, water, oxygen, sleep) 2) safety 3) belongingness and love (participating in affectionate sexual and non-sexual relationships, belonging to social groups) 4) esteem (being respected as an individual) and 5) self-actualization (becoming all that one is capable of being).

    In addition to individual motivations themselves, conflicts between different motivations exert a strong influence on human behavior. Four basic types of conflict have been identified: 1) approach-approach conflicts, in which a person must choose between two desirable activities that cannot both be pursued 2) avoidance-avoidance conflicts, in which neither choice in a situation is considered acceptable and one must choose the lesser of two evils 3) approach-avoidance conflicts, where one event or activity has both positive and negative features and 4) multiple approach-avoidance conflicts involving two or more alternatives, all of which have both positive and negative features.


    How can all of this be applied to work motivation?

    A firm grasp on Self-Determination Theory is invaluable in the context of work performance optimization, as well as job satisfaction. SDT is often applied to the workplace, and a very real link has been found between work environments that support the three core needs and positive work-related outcomes. [6] The theory can help employers understand how best to develop and engage their people, and can help individuals understand how they can be successful professionally.

    To tie it all together, extensive research around SDT has determined that the examination of different types of motivation and how they support the three core needs (Autonomy, Relatedness and Competence) is critical for an individual’s ability to grow and prosper. This is useful information in many contexts, including the professional world.

    Discover how to leverage Self-Determination Theory to optimize your workplace via People Intelligence:


    LotsOfEssays.com

    Abraham Maslow was an American psychologist, best known for his contribution to theories of human motivation (Engler, 2002:300-320). Extremely influential in the development of the school of humanistic psychology, much of Maslow's work remains important reading for contemporary psychologists (Allen, 2002: 187-269). The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the basic facts of Maslow's life, and the essential theoretical concepts he contributed to the field of psychology. His theoretical views are also contrasted and compared to other theories and criticisms of his work are discussed.

    Boeree (2004: 1-2) states that Maslow was one of seven sons of uneducated Jewish immigrants who immigrated to America from Russia. Pressured strongly by his parents to study hard and do well, he primarily placed his focus on academe to satisfy them. He studied at both City College of New York and Cornell. It was at Cornell where he met his wife. Sometime afterward, he moved his family to Wisconsin, so that he could study at the University of Wisconsin and it was here that he, for the first time, developed a real interest in psychology. All of his degrees were conferred by the University of Wisconsin.

    After getting his degrees, Maslow began to teach full time at Brooklyn College. According to Boeree (2004: 2), it was at Brooklyn College where he met many European intellectuals that had immigrated to the U.S. (e.g., Adler, Fromm, Horney) as well as Gestalt and Freudian psychologists. He was later to express a great gratitude for this time in his life and the people he met, whom he referred to as wonderful people who mentored him. He was to recall this time in his life very fondly.

    However, it was not until he served as the chair of psychology at Brandeis that he began to work on the ideas that are the hallmark of his life, the notions of a need hierarch in human motivation and of the highest level in this hierarchy, namely, self-ac.


    Two-Factor Theory

    Frederick Herzberg approached the question of motivation in a different way. By asking individuals what satisfies them on the job and what dissatisfies them, Herzberg came to the conclusion that aspects of the work environment that satisfy employees are very different from aspects that dissatisfy them (Herzberg, Mausner, & Snyderman, 1959 Herzberg, 1965). Herzberg labeled factors causing dissatisfaction of workers as “hygiene” factors because these factors were part of the context in which the job was performed, as opposed to the job itself. Hygiene factors included company policies, supervision, working conditions, salary, safety, and security on the job. To illustrate, imagine that you are working in an unpleasant work environment. Your office is too hot in the summer and too cold in the winter. You are being harassed and mistreated. You would certainly be miserable in such a work environment. However, if these problems were solved (your office temperature is just right and you are not harassed at all), would you be motivated? Most likely, you would take the situation for granted. In fact, many factors in our work environment are things that we miss when they are absent but take for granted if they are present.

    In contrast, motivators are factors that are intrinsic to the job, such as achievement, recognition, interesting work, increased responsibilities, advancement, and growth opportunities. According to Herzberg’s research, motivators are the conditions that truly encourage employees to try harder.

    Hygiene Factors

    • Company policy
    • Supervision and relationships
    • Working conditions
    • Salary
    • Security

    Motivators

    • Achievement
    • Recognition
    • Interesting work
    • Increased responsibility
    • Advancement and growth

    The two-factor theory of motivation includes hygiene factors and motivators.

    Sources: Based on Herzberg, F., Mausner, B., & Snyderman, B. (1959). The motivation to work. New York: John Wiley and Sons Herzberg, F. (1965). The motivation to work among Finnish supervisors. Personnel Psychology, 18, 393–402.

    Herzberg’s research is far from being universally accepted (Cummings & Elsalmi, 1968 House & Wigdor, 1967). One criticism relates to the primary research methodology employed when arriving at hygiene versus motivators. When people are asked why they are satisfied, they may attribute the causes of satisfaction to themselves, whereas when explaining what dissatisfies them, they may blame the situation. The classification of the factors as hygiene or motivator is not that simple either. For example, the theory views pay as a hygiene factor. However, pay may have symbolic value by showing employees that they are being recognized for their contributions as well as communicating that they are advancing within the company. Similarly, the quality of supervision or the types of relationships employees form with their supervisors may determine whether they are assigned interesting work, whether they are recognized for their potential, and whether they take on more responsibilities.

    Despite its limitations, the theory can be a valuable aid to managers because it points out that improving the environment in which the job is performed goes only so far in motivating employees. Undoubtedly, contextual factors matter because their absence causes dissatisfaction. However, solely focusing on hygiene factors will not be enough, and managers should also enrich jobs by giving employees opportunities for challenging work, greater responsibilities, advancement opportunities, and a job in which their subordinates can feel successful.


    Frederick Herzberg's dual-factor theory, or two-factor theory, states that two consistent factors play into motivation, specifically in the workplace: hygiene and motivators. Hygiene factors are those which, if absent from a workplace, cause dissatisfaction. These factors include the environment, level of supervision, pay, etc. Motivators are factors that cause added satisfaction if present in a workplace but do not lower satisfaction levels among employees if not present. These factors include sense of achievement, recognition of abilities, nature of the job, etc.

    David McClelland's need for achievement theory is similar to Maslow's but states that people's needs are shaped by their life experiences over time. McClelland's theory cites three different types of people based on their motivation style: high achievers, people with affiliation needs and those with a need for power. People who are high achievers strive to be the best at everything and do best in high-risk situations. High achievers should be given difficult projects with clear goals in mind and provided with constant feedback. Those who need affiliation simply require harmonious and pleasant relationships with their coworkers and clients, and do best in more group-based, cooperative situations. Those with a need for power actively desire to organize and direct others for the personal goals or the institution they work for and work best in management positions.


    Below is a Brief Outline for a Project on a Theory of Motivation

    1. Introduction
      1. Describe the intent of paper and outline main ideas.
      2. Briefly describe the relevant experience you selected. Include information about the context (e.g., what you did in the organization, who you reported to, what your responsibilities were) as well as any other information relevant to understanding how the theory of motivation applies to your experience.
      1. In your own words, clearly and completely define and describe the theory.
      2. Be sure to include each element of the theory.
      1. Relate the theory to a particular experience within the organization.
        • Briefly describe a particular experience within the organization.
        • Explicitly state how the experience is related to the particular theory of motivation.
      2. Explicitly state whether or not the experience was motivating and why.
      3. Give specific behavioral responses that resulted from the experience.
      1. Now that you understand how the motivation theory was related to your experience, discuss how this theory could be applied to future experiences you will have. The idea is to use your knowledge of the theory to become more motivated in the future.
      2. Give specific examples relating each aspect of the theory to a future experience.
      1. Write a conclusion telling what you learned from this exercise.

      Overview of Theories of Motivation:

      Motivation is very important within society, especially when it involves organizations. Everyone works on a theory of motivation, what drives a person or organization to make the choices that they make. Without any kind of motivation or direction, a business or organization will not have a direction and are potentially in threat of losing business or worse. In understanding different motivations, theories, and behaviors, managers can help to direct an organization, maintain valued employees and improve overall performance, thus creating more revenue and having a positive impact on the company as a whole, thus they fulfill their own motivation.

      Related Research Paper Topics

      Human Motivation - Research papers explain the role of learning in Human Motivation, and 5 theories that provide pros and cons regarding risk-taking in human motivation.

      Theory of Work Research Papers examine a paper ordered on a specific theory of group interaction and development.

      Educational Psychology Theories - The father of humanism, Abraham Maslow is the primary source for this aspect of educational psychology, with his hierarchy of needs pyramid.

      Maslow&rsquos Hierarchy of Needs - In Maslow&rsquos Hierarchy of Needs research papers, Maslow's theory is discussed in light of employee motivation.

      Subjective Well Being - Subjective well being is a scientific concept which psychologists and other specialists use to assist individuals in assessing their lives.

      What is a Need research papers look at the Maslow hypothesis of the human need hierarchy.

      Frederick Herzberg - Research papers on Frederick Herzberg look into the American psychologist whose work became highly influential in business management.

      Leadership and Motivation - Knowledge gained after learning Leadership and Motivation concepts require reflections of your own leadership model.

      Emotions in Social Relationships - Emotions in social relationships research papers cover social goals and social emotions.

      Human Behavior research papers examine the entire range of actions or mannerisms exhibited by human beings.

      Study of Human Behavior research papers discuss the study that focuses on several of the social sciences, principally psychology, sociology, economics, and anthropology.

      How to Write a Research Paper on Theory of Motivation

      This page is designed to show you how to write a research project on the topic you see here. Learn from our sample or order a custom written research paper from Paper Masters.

      Custom Research Papers - Custom written research papers on any topic you need starting at $23.95 per page.

      Custom Research Paper Services - Learn about all of Paper Masters' custom research paper and writing services.

      End your research paper worries in less than 5 Minutes!

      Order a custom research paper on ANY topic.


      References

      Hansell, J and Damour, L (2008). Abnormal Psychology (2nd ed.). Retrieved from the University of Phoenix eBook Collection database.

      Meyer, R Chapman, L and Weaver, C(2009). Case Studies in Abnormal Behavior (8th ed). Retrieved from the University of Phoenix eBook Collection database.

      Ricketts, T., & Macaskill, A. (2003). Gambling as emotion management: developing a grounded theory of problem gambling. Addiction Research & Theory, 11(6), 383-400. doi:10.1080/1606635031000062074


      Motivation

      The drive that produces goal-directed behavior.

      The study of motivation is concerned with the influences that govern the initiation, direction, intensity, and persistence of behavior. Three categories of motives have been recognized by many researchers: primary or biological (hunger and the regulation of food intake) stimulus-seeking (internal needs for cognitive, physical, and emotional stimulation, or intrinsic and extrinsic rewards) and learned (motives acquired through reward and punishment, or by observation of others).

      Instinct theories, which were popular early in the twentieth century, take a biological approach to motivation. Ethologists study instinctual animal behavior to find patterns that are unlearned, uniform in expression, and universal in a species. Similarly, instinct theory in humans emphasizes the inborn, automatic, involuntary, and unlearned processes which control and direct human behavior. Scientific development of the instinct theory consisted largely of drawing up lists of instincts. In 1908, William McDougall (1871-1938) postulated 18 human instincts within 20 years, the list of instincts had grown to 10,000. Although instinct theory has since been abandoned, its evolutionary perspective has been adopted by sociobiologists considering a wide range of human behavior, from aggression to interpersonal attraction, from the standpoint of natural selection and the survival of humans as a species.

      Drive-reduction theory, which is biologically-oriented but also encompasses learning, centers on the concept of homeostasis, or equilibrium. According to this theory, humans are constantly striving to maintain homeostasis by adjusting themselves to change. Any imbalance creates a need and a resulting drive&mdasha state of arousal that prompts action to restore the sense of balance and thereby reduce the drive. The drive called thirst, for example, prompts us to drink, after which the thirst is reduced. In drive-reduction theory, motivation is seen not just as a result of biological instincts, but rather as a combination of learning and biology. The primary drives, such as hunger and thirst, are basic physiological needs that are unlearned. However, there is also a system of learned drives known as secondary-drives that are not biological (such as the desire for money) but that prompt action in much the same way as the primary drives.

      Another biologically-oriented theory of motivation is arousal theory, which posits that each person is driven to achieve his or her optimum level of arousal, acting in ways that will increase this level when it is too low and decrease it when it is too high. Peak performance of tasks is usually associated with moderate levels of arousal. Researchers have found that difficult tasks (at which people might "freeze" from nervousness) are best accomplished at moderate arousal levels, while easier ones can be successfully completed at higher levels.

      Psychologically-oriented theories of motivation emphasize external environmental factors and the role of thoughts and expectations in motivation. Incentive theory argues that motivation results from environmental stimuli in the form of positive and negative incentives, and the value these incentives hold at a given time. Food, for example, would be a stronger incentive when a person is hungry. Cognitive theories emphasize the importance of mental processes in goal-directed behavior. Many theorists have agreed, for example, that people are more strongly motivated when they project a positive outcome to their actions. Achievement-oriented individuals learn at an early age to strive for excellence, maintain optimistic expectations, and to not be readily discouraged by failure. Conversely, individuals who consistently fear failure have been found to set goals that are too high or too low and become easily discouraged by obstacles. The concept of learned helplessness centers on how behavior is affected by the degree of control that is possible in a given situation.

      American psychologist Abraham Maslow developed a five-level hierarchy of needs, or motives, that influence human behavior. The "lower" physiological and biological urges at the bottom of the hierarchy must be at least partially satisfied before people will be motivated by those urges closer to the top. The levels in Maslow's system are as follows: 1) biological (food, water, oxygen, sleep) 2) safety 3) belongingness and love (participating in affectionate sexual and non-sexual relationships, belonging to social groups) 4) esteem (being respected as an individual) and 5) self-actualization (becoming all that one is capable of being).

      In addition to individual motivations themselves, conflicts between different motivations exert a strong influence on human behavior. Four basic types of conflict have been identified: 1) approach-approach conflicts, in which a person must choose between two desirable activities that cannot both be pursued 2) avoidance-avoidance conflicts, in which neither choice in a situation is considered acceptable and one must choose the lesser of two evils 3) approach-avoidance conflicts, where one event or activity has both positive and negative features and 4) multiple approach-avoidance conflicts involving two or more alternatives, all of which have both positive and negative features.


      How can all of this be applied to work motivation?

      A firm grasp on Self-Determination Theory is invaluable in the context of work performance optimization, as well as job satisfaction. SDT is often applied to the workplace, and a very real link has been found between work environments that support the three core needs and positive work-related outcomes. [6] The theory can help employers understand how best to develop and engage their people, and can help individuals understand how they can be successful professionally.

      To tie it all together, extensive research around SDT has determined that the examination of different types of motivation and how they support the three core needs (Autonomy, Relatedness and Competence) is critical for an individual’s ability to grow and prosper. This is useful information in many contexts, including the professional world.

      Discover how to leverage Self-Determination Theory to optimize your workplace via People Intelligence:


      Two-Factor Theory

      Frederick Herzberg approached the question of motivation in a different way. By asking individuals what satisfies them on the job and what dissatisfies them, Herzberg came to the conclusion that aspects of the work environment that satisfy employees are very different from aspects that dissatisfy them (Herzberg, Mausner, & Snyderman, 1959 Herzberg, 1965). Herzberg labeled factors causing dissatisfaction of workers as “hygiene” factors because these factors were part of the context in which the job was performed, as opposed to the job itself. Hygiene factors included company policies, supervision, working conditions, salary, safety, and security on the job. To illustrate, imagine that you are working in an unpleasant work environment. Your office is too hot in the summer and too cold in the winter. You are being harassed and mistreated. You would certainly be miserable in such a work environment. However, if these problems were solved (your office temperature is just right and you are not harassed at all), would you be motivated? Most likely, you would take the situation for granted. In fact, many factors in our work environment are things that we miss when they are absent but take for granted if they are present.

      In contrast, motivators are factors that are intrinsic to the job, such as achievement, recognition, interesting work, increased responsibilities, advancement, and growth opportunities. According to Herzberg’s research, motivators are the conditions that truly encourage employees to try harder.

      Hygiene Factors

      • Company policy
      • Supervision and relationships
      • Working conditions
      • Salary
      • Security

      Motivators

      • Achievement
      • Recognition
      • Interesting work
      • Increased responsibility
      • Advancement and growth

      The two-factor theory of motivation includes hygiene factors and motivators.

      Sources: Based on Herzberg, F., Mausner, B., & Snyderman, B. (1959). The motivation to work. New York: John Wiley and Sons Herzberg, F. (1965). The motivation to work among Finnish supervisors. Personnel Psychology, 18, 393–402.

      Herzberg’s research is far from being universally accepted (Cummings & Elsalmi, 1968 House & Wigdor, 1967). One criticism relates to the primary research methodology employed when arriving at hygiene versus motivators. When people are asked why they are satisfied, they may attribute the causes of satisfaction to themselves, whereas when explaining what dissatisfies them, they may blame the situation. The classification of the factors as hygiene or motivator is not that simple either. For example, the theory views pay as a hygiene factor. However, pay may have symbolic value by showing employees that they are being recognized for their contributions as well as communicating that they are advancing within the company. Similarly, the quality of supervision or the types of relationships employees form with their supervisors may determine whether they are assigned interesting work, whether they are recognized for their potential, and whether they take on more responsibilities.

      Despite its limitations, the theory can be a valuable aid to managers because it points out that improving the environment in which the job is performed goes only so far in motivating employees. Undoubtedly, contextual factors matter because their absence causes dissatisfaction. However, solely focusing on hygiene factors will not be enough, and managers should also enrich jobs by giving employees opportunities for challenging work, greater responsibilities, advancement opportunities, and a job in which their subordinates can feel successful.


      Frederick Herzberg's dual-factor theory, or two-factor theory, states that two consistent factors play into motivation, specifically in the workplace: hygiene and motivators. Hygiene factors are those which, if absent from a workplace, cause dissatisfaction. These factors include the environment, level of supervision, pay, etc. Motivators are factors that cause added satisfaction if present in a workplace but do not lower satisfaction levels among employees if not present. These factors include sense of achievement, recognition of abilities, nature of the job, etc.

      David McClelland's need for achievement theory is similar to Maslow's but states that people's needs are shaped by their life experiences over time. McClelland's theory cites three different types of people based on their motivation style: high achievers, people with affiliation needs and those with a need for power. People who are high achievers strive to be the best at everything and do best in high-risk situations. High achievers should be given difficult projects with clear goals in mind and provided with constant feedback. Those who need affiliation simply require harmonious and pleasant relationships with their coworkers and clients, and do best in more group-based, cooperative situations. Those with a need for power actively desire to organize and direct others for the personal goals or the institution they work for and work best in management positions.


      Positive Outcomes Associated With Autonomous Motivation

      By virtue of the definition of basic needs within SDT, satisfaction of these needs promotes positive psychological health. More than three decades of research has confirmed that being autonomously motivated and satisfying the psychological needs are vital to both mental and physical well-being. Greater autonomous motivation relative to controlled motivation has been linked to more positive emotions and less stress. This pattern emerges in samples of both children and adults, in countries as varied as Germany, Bulgaria, Russia, South Korea, Turkey, and the United States, among others.

      Autonomous motivation also leads to greater maintained lifestyle change, better conceptual understanding and deep learning, greater job satisfaction and performance, and higher creativity. For example, research has demonstrated that when people are autonomously motivated to eat a healthier diet and exercise more, they tend to maintain those behaviors more effectively over the long run. When students in school are more autonomously motivated, they tend to get better grades and are less likely to drop out. Employees at large companies are more likely to receive positive work evaluations when they are autonomously motivated. And the paintings and collages created by individuals whose motivation is autonomous are likely to be rated as more creative by expert judges. The merits of autonomous motivation are numerous and varied.


      LotsOfEssays.com

      Abraham Maslow was an American psychologist, best known for his contribution to theories of human motivation (Engler, 2002:300-320). Extremely influential in the development of the school of humanistic psychology, much of Maslow's work remains important reading for contemporary psychologists (Allen, 2002: 187-269). The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the basic facts of Maslow's life, and the essential theoretical concepts he contributed to the field of psychology. His theoretical views are also contrasted and compared to other theories and criticisms of his work are discussed.

      Boeree (2004: 1-2) states that Maslow was one of seven sons of uneducated Jewish immigrants who immigrated to America from Russia. Pressured strongly by his parents to study hard and do well, he primarily placed his focus on academe to satisfy them. He studied at both City College of New York and Cornell. It was at Cornell where he met his wife. Sometime afterward, he moved his family to Wisconsin, so that he could study at the University of Wisconsin and it was here that he, for the first time, developed a real interest in psychology. All of his degrees were conferred by the University of Wisconsin.

      After getting his degrees, Maslow began to teach full time at Brooklyn College. According to Boeree (2004: 2), it was at Brooklyn College where he met many European intellectuals that had immigrated to the U.S. (e.g., Adler, Fromm, Horney) as well as Gestalt and Freudian psychologists. He was later to express a great gratitude for this time in his life and the people he met, whom he referred to as wonderful people who mentored him. He was to recall this time in his life very fondly.

      However, it was not until he served as the chair of psychology at Brandeis that he began to work on the ideas that are the hallmark of his life, the notions of a need hierarch in human motivation and of the highest level in this hierarchy, namely, self-ac.


      Watch the video: Abraham Maslow - A Theory of Human Motivation (July 2022).


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