Information

Model for the Un/Conscious Mind

Model for the Un/Conscious Mind


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

As far as modern psychology is concerned, is there currently a standard scientific model for the conscious and unconscious mind, as well as conscious experience/perception? If so, are there any recommended resources (scientific books/articles) that detail this model?

I am currently reading The Mind Illuminated by John Yates, and while the book itself is tremendously helpful in the study and practice of mindfulness, I wanted to do some fact checking and research on the information presented in the book.

In the book John Yates describes all conscious perception, that is, visual, auditory, somatosensory, gustatory, olfactory, and mind sense (thoughts, memories, emotions) as taking on one of two qualities:

Attention: The cognitive ability to select and analyze specific information (sensory input, thoughts, memories, emotions, etc.) and ignore other information arising from a vast field of internal and external stimuli

Awareness: A general cognizance of sensory information; mental objects like thoughts, memories, and feelings; and the overall state and activity of the mind. Unlike attention which isolates and analyzes specific objects, peripheral awareness is inclusive holistic, and only minimally conceptual.

For example, in vision, objects of attention result in focused and sharper visual perception, whereas object of awareness form our periphery and are more blurry.

In the Mind-System model, Yates describes the mind as having a structure depicted in this image

Where the mind is divided into Unconscious and Conscious, and the Unconscious Mind is composed of the Sensory and Discriminating Mind.

My question to academics: does this information sound consistent with what is presented in modern day psychology & cognitive science? And where may find more academic explanation of these types of models.


I only know of one Cognitive Model dividing the unconscious and conscious mind is presented by Paul Thaghard in "Two theories of consciousness: Semantic pointer competition vs. information integration". I explain this model in layman's terms in my blog post. In this answer, I'll compare Thaghard's model to Yate's model you've presented above.

Yate's model is based on the ideas of Global Workspace Theory (GWB). GWB posits that unconscious processes compete for the spotlight of attention so that they can enter consciousness. This seems to be what Yate's is suggesting in this diagram and would tie in nicely with mindfulness meditation.

GWB isn't a bad model. It makes a few predictions and describes a lot of phenomena (comas, certain types of blindness). However, it's not easily testable or disprovable. How do these unconscious processes interact? What type of representation would unconscious processes use and how does this relate to neurons? Can I build a computation model of consciousness based off this specification? These are the things that Paul's model worries about and specifies. Paul's model is essentially a more specified version of the Yate's model. It defines a representation (Semantic Pointers) which relates to neurons and makes testable claims.

To summarize and get back to your question, Yate's model is vaguely consistent with Cognitive Science, but it is under-specified. For further reading on more specific models, check the links in this answer.


Preconscious

In psychoanalytic theory, knowledge, images, emotions, and other mental phenomena that are not present in immediate consciousness but are quickly accessible and can be brought into consciousness easily without the use of special techniques.

Sigmund Freud theorized that the human mind was divided into three parts: the conscious, preconscious, and unconscious. This schema first appeared in his earliest model of mental functioning, published in his classic work, The Interpretation of Dreams (1900). Freud believed that the preconscious functions as an intermediate or transitional level of the mind&mdashbetween the unconscious and the conscious&mdashthrough which repressed material passes.

Freud described this arrangement spatially, depicting the unconscious as a large room crowded with thoughts and the conscious area as a smaller reception room, with a doorkeeper between the two rooms selectively admitting thoughts from the unconscious to the consciousness. Those thoughts that are restricted to the unconscious area remain repressed, meaning that they are totally invisible to the conscious self, and can be recovered only by hypnosis, free association, or some other technique. Not all thoughts allowed into the "reception area" necessarily become conscious, however. Rather, they become available for consciousness, with one or another becoming conscious at a given time when attention is drawn to it in some way. Thus, the smaller room might more properly be thought of as a preconscious area, in which are gathered all of the thoughts that are not deliberately repressed. Because of their relative closeness to each other, Freud actually grouped the conscious and preconscious systems together in contrast to the unconscious, emphasizing that thoughts in the conscious and preconscious categories do not differ in any essential way and can be distinguished only functionally. A preconscious thought can quickly become conscious by receiving attention, and a conscious thought can slip into the preconscious when attention is withdrawn from it.


Contents

Somewhat related to the subconscious are nonconscious psychic events. The term nonconscious seems to be used in various ways. Some appear to use the term to avoid the somewhat value-laden term "unconscious" or "subconscious", but basically for the same purpose. Others use it to refer to events that can only be observed indirectly (e.g. certain acts of short-term memory), and still others use it to point to events such as brain activity controlled mostly by the limbic system (e.g. emotional reactions to certain smells). Not surprisingly, there are no sharply delineated conventions for distinguishing exactly between the nonconscious and the subconscious -- partly because they interact with each other, and partly because, as is so often the case, psychologists are unable to agree on the definitions.

The subconscious mind is halfway between the conscious thinking mind and the unconscious mind or collective unconscious. The thinking mind would be the consciousness and is able to reason and make meaning of things. The subconscious mind is the recording mechanism that records information based on how it was perceived by the judging thinking mind. The unconscious mind is a record of things how they innately are without judgement and is thought to be outside of time and space so therefore is a record of everything in the past, present and future. The subconscious mind takes info from the conscious mind and puts it into the unconscious mind and likewise, the subconscious mind pulls information from the unconscious mind and surfaces through the conscious mind in the form of ideas, inspirations, etc.


Psychology of the Unconscious: What makes the Unconscious Mind so unique?

Hello, thank you for your submission. Please note that we require all video submissions to be accompanied by one or more peer-reviewed citations. If this submission does not have accompanying citations, it will be removed. If you have any questions, please message the moderators.

I am a bot, and this action was performed automatically. Please contact the moderators of this subreddit if you have any questions or concerns.

Ever wonder why dreams don't make sense to you went you wake up? Also out of 3 levels of consciousness which consciousness is responsible for our pain and suffering!!
Understand the psychology of the unconscious mind with the help of Freud's Iceberg Theory presented by
Sigmund Freud (6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939)
an Austrian neurologist and learn how to program your unconscious mind
Psychology of the Unconscious Mind
Hope this video adds value to your time#Mentalhealth #mentalhealthawareness #Psychology
Cheers!
References:

American Psychological Association. APA concise dictionary of psychology. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 2009. Print.

Freud, S. (1894). The neuro-psychoses of defense. SE, 3: 41-61.

Freud, S. (1915). The unconscious. SE, 14: 159-204.

Freud, S. (1961). The resistances to psycho-analysis. In The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud, Volume


Questions to ask yourself

You’re walking in the woods and you’re with somebody.

Who are you with?

The person you thought of is the most important person in your life at the moment.

You keep going through the woods and you hear some rustling in the bushes and an animal pops out.

What’s the animal? And what’s the first thing you do when it comes out?

The size of the animal is the amount of your stress, and how you reacted to seeing the email is how you react to your stress.

You go further into the woods and you come to an opening and there’s a house.

What’s the size of the house? And do you see a fence?

The size of the house is the size of your ambition and if you saw a fence that means you’re narrow-minded. If there's no fence, then you’re more open-minded.

You decide to explore this house. You go to the dining room and you see a dining table.

Do you see anything on or around the table?

The more you see on the table then the happier you are in your life at the moment.

Subscribe to our newsletter.

After seeing the dining room, you want to explore the rest of the house and you see a cup on the ground.

What is the cup made out of? And what do you do when you see the cup?

The durability of the material of the cup represents the durability of the relationship with the person you said you thought of in the first question. What you do when you see the cup, is what you want to do with or to that person.

You then decide you want to go to the backyard and you see a body of water.

What type of body of water is it? You also want to get across, what do you do to get across?

The size of the water is the size of your sexual desire. The more water that touches you body when crossing the body of water, the more you want to get a little freaky in bed.


The Three Levels of Human Consciousness

Buddhism has a sophisticated theory of mind but has undoubtedly contained the concepts of conscious and subconscious for over thousands of years. Sigmund Freud made these concepts popular throughout the Western world at the turn of the 20th century.

The first level of consciousness is known as the conscious state, and this refers to our immediate awareness that you are experiencing as you read this. We make use of our conscious mind when we take in input from our senses, analyse the information, and then make decisions based on this information.

The conscious mind consists of what we are aware of at any given point in time. It includes the things that we are thinking about right now, whether it’s in the front of our minds or the back. If we’re aware of it, then it is in the conscious mind.

Robert Collier explained the conscious mind expertly when he said, “It is only through your conscious mind that you can reach the subconscious. Your conscious mind is the porter at the door, the watchman at the gate. It is to the conscious mind that the subconscious looks for all its impressions.”

For example, at this moment you may be consciously aware of the information you’re reading, the sound of the music you’re listening to, or a conversation you’re having. All of the thoughts that pass through your mind, the sensations and perceptions from the outside world, and the memories that you bring into your awareness are all part of that conscious experience.

The next level of consciousness, the subconscious (or preconscious), is the stuff from which dreams are made. We can consider it as the storehouse of all remembered experiences, impressions that are left on the mind by such experiences, and tendencies that are awakened or reinforced by these impressions.

Every experience you’ve ever had, every thought, every impression lives in the subconscious mind and influences our patterns of thought and behaviour far more than we realise.

The subconscious holds information that is just below the surface of awareness. An individual can retrieve such information with relative ease, and we usually refer to these as memories.

For example, if someone asked you right now what your middle name was, you would be able to recall it, or when your father’s birthday was or when it last rained. The memories of past experiences live in what Freud referred to as the subconscious part of our minds, that we might not be aware of one moment, and then fully focussed on the next.

What we accomplish in our life, work and relationships will usually be determined by the habits that we develop over time. The practice of setting priorities and getting on with important day-to-day tasks is both a mental and physical skill. As such, this habit is learnable through practice and repetition until it locks into our subconscious mind and becomes a permanent part of our behaviour.

The final level of consciousness is known as the unconscious. This is made up of thoughts, memories, and primitive/instinctual desires that are buried deep within ourselves, far below our conscious awareness. Even though we’re not aware of their existence, they have a significant influence on our behaviour.

Although our behaviours tend to indicate the unconscious forces driving them, we can’t readily access the information which is stored in the unconscious mind. Throughout our childhood, we gathered many different memories and experiences that formed the beliefs, fears and insecurities that we carry today. However, we cannot recall most of these memories. They are unconscious forces that drive our behaviours.

For example, things in your unconscious that might be forgotten include negative experiences from your past or a traumatic event that you pushed out of your subconscious. There might be some life experiences or thoughts that are too threatening for some people to fully acknowledge and are therefore mediated by the preconscious/subconscious part of the mind.

‘Freud’s Iceberg Theory’ uses the imagery of an iceberg to separate these ‘3 levels of consciousness’. Similarly, we can use an iceberg as a helpful metaphor to understand how much of ourselves we choose to freely reveal to the other people whom we interact with on a day-today basis.

As an iceberg floats in the water, the vast mass of it remains below the surface. Only a small percentage of the whole is visible above the surface, and the largest and most influential part remains unseen below the surface.

In precisely the same way, each of us will often have a part of ourselves that we reveal to others, with the larger part of ourselves being deeply submerged that no-one ever gets to see.

T he Achologist is the official online publication for Achology, the Academy of Modern Applied Psychology for professional practitioners and life coaches.


Psychodynamic Approach

The theories of Austrian-born neurologist Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) had a tremendous impact on the field of psychology - both on our understanding of the mind and on our approach to addressing psychological issues.

In Depth Sigmund Freud

Who was Sigmund Freud and how did his theories become so influential in psychology? Learn more

Through his psychodynamic theory of the psyche, Sigmund Freud asserted that our behavior and the mental issues that we suffer can be traced beyond our conscious self-control - that our subconscious mind , and the innate impulses that we may not be aware of, are what influence the way in which we behave.

Approaches in Psychology

Freud was an early adopter of talking therapy, which supposes that by talking about a problem with a psychoanalyst, a person can identify any issues which may have occurred earlier in life and in turn, overcome the current internal conflicts of their subconscious mind .

In this article, we will look at Freud's unique approach to the human psyche and the case study which shaped it. We will also explore the psychodynamic approach and consider its implications for modern psychology.

In Depth Psychodynamic Approach

How Freud's theories of the human psyche seek to explain the influence of our subconscious. Learn more

The Case of Anna O

The development of Freud's theories of the mind occurred through his observation of patients whilst he was a practitioner. One of his earliest influences was the case of Anna O, a 21-year-old woman whom Freud never actually met, however. A client of Freud's friend, Josef Breuer , Anna was suffering from what was at the time referred to as hysteria . She experienced paralysis on one side, restricting the use of one of her arms, and had developed an aversion to water (hydrophobia), restricting her ability to drink for days at a time. In addition to these symptoms, Anna suffered from involuntary eye movements and other issues which doctors were unable to attribute to a physical condition.

Breuer was interested in the relationship between the events which had occurred earlier in her live and her present conditions. Upon investigation, Anna revealed an occasion when she had been sat next to her father, who was himself ill in bed. In a dream, she saw a black snake coming towards him, but was unable to prevent the snake from travelling closer because she was unable to move one of her arms. This traumatic experience had clearly profoundly affected Anna, and was attributed to her current bouts of paralysis for which no other cause could be found.

After ongoing sessions, Breuer found that Anna's other symptoms could be also traced back to specific experiences earlier in her life. On one occasion, she has been offered a glass of water but had witnessed a dog walk upto the glass and drink from it before she had been able to sip it. Breuer reasoned that this had again affected Anna and had lead to her being unable to drink water later on.

Anna O 's sessions with Breuer over a period of time were productive, and after regressing to these anxious moments, she found that she was able to understand their relation to her present irrational symptoms and in turn, overcome them. She referred to this therapy as 'chimney sweeping' and a 'talking cure' - a term which would become synonymous with psychoanalysis.

In Depth Anna O: Sigmund Freud's Case History

The life and case study of Anna O: how Sigmund Freud was influenced by one woman's experiences. Learn more

Freud took note of the case of Anna O and referred to her in his collaborative work with Breuer, Studies on Hysteria (Freud and Breuer, 1895), a book whose attribution of subconscious memories and anxieties to hysteria would lay the groundwork for his psychodynamic theory of the mind. 1

The composition of the psyche

Freud's interest was in the dynamics of the mind - the conscious and its subconscious influences. He felt that the energy in the psyche was a constant value, and so instead of disappearing from the conscious, it would build up in the subconscious and cause increasing inner tension until it was addressed. For example, if something angers you, the energy of your anger does not expend itself if you internalise it. Rather, it may be transferred to the subconscious, and lead to a repressed resentment which you may be unaware of on a conscious level.

Freud claimed that the human psyche consisted of three separate areas - the id , ego and superego - which compete against one another for control over our behavior.

The Id

The id (meaning 'it' in Latin) represents our most impulsive, untamed desires, and pay no regard for what is acceptable or reasonable.

Innate instincts such as the need for food, water, warmth and sexual desires originate in our id. In a sense, the id is our 'inner child' - it drives our instinctive behavior from birth and expects its demands to be met immediately, regardless of any consequences. The id abides by the Pleasure Principle , which asserts that we seek to maximise pleasure and avoid pain wherever possible.

Also contained within the id is the death drive, a self-destructive impulsiveness which drives us to the end of our life.

The Ego

The second element of the psyche is the ego , which acts as an intermediary between the unreasonable demands of the id and the outside reality. It tries to satisfy the needs of the id as much as is practically possible without necessarily understanding why some demands might be unreasonable.

The ego remains self-centered and does not give consideration to other people's needs or wishes. It acts based on the Reality Principle , which, in contrast to the Pleasure Principle of the id, accepts the limits of what can be obtained from the outside world.

The Superego

The third component of our psyche is the superego . This feels compassion for others and again tries to satisfy the needs of the id, but understands that some of those needs may adversely affect others. It acts as a filter for our behavior and maintains our conscience, leading to an understanding of other people's emotions and to emotional guilt.

Oedipus and Electra complexes

One way of understanding the id, ego and superego is to consider how they dominate our behaviour during the different stages of the life cycle. Freud identified numerous stages of psychosexual development which we experience, including:

Oral stage

When newborn and in the first few months of our lives, we have a need nourishment. As we feed with the mouth, Freud referred to this as the oral stage.

We expect our need to feed to be satisfied as and when we require food. If it is not satisfied, we begin to crying as we possess no concept of patience or understanding when nourishment is unavailable. This stage, during the first year of our lives, is dominated by the id component of our psyche, as the ego and superego have not yet developed.

Anal stage

As we grow older and begin toilet training, defecation becomes a focus of our needs. During this anal stage, we realise that our needs will be met as they are required, but that we might have to wait (such as waiting to eat whilst food is being prepared). Within reason, we might wait a while for it to be prepared before we resort to crying. During this second stage of our lives, the ego develops and is in regular conflict with the impatient demands of the id.

Phallic stage

At the age of around three, our experience with the outside world has helped to develop the ego. At this point, we recognise our physical existence during what Freud describes as the phallic stage. A recognition of sexuality, Freud claimed, leads to a demand for the attention of the mother in males, in competition with the father. In Greek mythology, Oedipus competes for the attention of his mother, Jocasta, and kills his father, Laius, in the process, and Freud named this jostling for affection the Oedipus complex . In girls, a similar process occurs in relation to the father, and is known as the Electra complex .

As a result of such complexes, we recognise that our needs are unreasonable and may feel guilt for experiencing such desires - feelings resulting from the development of the superego.

Freudian Slips

One other way in which the subconscious reveals its desires is through unintentional slips of the tongue in conversation. These mishaps have come to be known as Freudian slips, named after Sigmund Freud.

Throughout our lives, the subconscious drives of the id dictate our desires and behavior, whilst the ego and superego lead us to temper such behavior. Aside from feelings of guilt when we realise these desires, we may repress them so that we do not need to recognise that we experience them. Freud believed that this tension between the demands of the id, ego and superego, and the repression of desire in the subconscious mind, can disrupt the equilibrium of the psyche and lead to feelings of anxiety and other problems, such as in the case of Anna O. One way to resolve this imbalance is to bring repressed feelings and memories into the conscious so that we can rationalise and understand them.

The psychodynamic model today

The explanation of the mind that the psychodynamic model provides gained traction among psychoanalysts during the early 20th Century. However, numerous psychologists have since questioned how effectively it can be used to understand a person's condition.

Critics argue that by attributing our behavior to earlier experiences during childhood, psychodynamic theories ignore our ability to control our behavior using our own free will . The psychodynamic approach takes what is effectively a reductionist view of the human mind and our own self-control over our destinies.

Moreover, psychodynamic theories take a purely internalised view of behavior, ignoring external factors such as the biological influences of genetics on our predisposition to some mental problems. Whilst Freud did provide case studies of clients with regards to his theories, psychodynamic explanations are by their very nature difficult to either prove or disprove, lacking evidence that might be gained empirically through experiments.

Nonetheless, the influence of Freud and the psychodynamic model of the mind can be felt today in the field of psychology. The 'talking cure' remains a key tool for psychoanalysts even when some of Freud's more tenuous theories have been called into question.


Unconscious Mind

Creativity as the working of the ‘ unconscious mind ’ is in the class of ‘magic’ theories (such as divine inspiration). It offers no real explanation of the creative process, merely attributing it to a mysterious (and very creative) unconscious mind. It is espoused by Hadamard and others in his book on mathematical invention, and is, of course, very much influenced by the Freudian ideas prevailing at the time. The scenario is that for a time one works consciously on a problem, and when one fails, one's unconscious mind somehow continues working and mysteriously accomplishes what the conscious one could not. From the perspective of modern cognitive science, this is not very helpful, because all cognitive processes are unconscious, and as such, require an explanation, not merely an anthropomorphic attribution to another, wiser (or more primitive) mind analogous to the conscious one.

The problem of explaining creative and non-creative cognition consists of providing a mechanism for all of our unconscious processing. The only informative aspect of the ‘unconscious-mind’ model is the attention it draws to the incompleteness of the role of conscious, deliberate efforts in the creative process. Note, however, that Pasteur's dictum had already indicated that preparation was necessary but not sufficient. (Moreover, ‘conscious, deliberate effort’ is not even sufficient to explain such altogether uncreative cognitive activities as remembering a name, recognizing a face, or adding two and two.)


Psychodynamic Approach

The theories of Austrian-born neurologist Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) had a tremendous impact on the field of psychology - both on our understanding of the mind and on our approach to addressing psychological issues.

In Depth Sigmund Freud

Who was Sigmund Freud and how did his theories become so influential in psychology? Learn more

Through his psychodynamic theory of the psyche, Sigmund Freud asserted that our behavior and the mental issues that we suffer can be traced beyond our conscious self-control - that our subconscious mind , and the innate impulses that we may not be aware of, are what influence the way in which we behave.

Approaches in Psychology

Freud was an early adopter of talking therapy, which supposes that by talking about a problem with a psychoanalyst, a person can identify any issues which may have occurred earlier in life and in turn, overcome the current internal conflicts of their subconscious mind .

In this article, we will look at Freud's unique approach to the human psyche and the case study which shaped it. We will also explore the psychodynamic approach and consider its implications for modern psychology.

In Depth Psychodynamic Approach

How Freud's theories of the human psyche seek to explain the influence of our subconscious. Learn more

The Case of Anna O

The development of Freud's theories of the mind occurred through his observation of patients whilst he was a practitioner. One of his earliest influences was the case of Anna O, a 21-year-old woman whom Freud never actually met, however. A client of Freud's friend, Josef Breuer , Anna was suffering from what was at the time referred to as hysteria . She experienced paralysis on one side, restricting the use of one of her arms, and had developed an aversion to water (hydrophobia), restricting her ability to drink for days at a time. In addition to these symptoms, Anna suffered from involuntary eye movements and other issues which doctors were unable to attribute to a physical condition.

Breuer was interested in the relationship between the events which had occurred earlier in her live and her present conditions. Upon investigation, Anna revealed an occasion when she had been sat next to her father, who was himself ill in bed. In a dream, she saw a black snake coming towards him, but was unable to prevent the snake from travelling closer because she was unable to move one of her arms. This traumatic experience had clearly profoundly affected Anna, and was attributed to her current bouts of paralysis for which no other cause could be found.

After ongoing sessions, Breuer found that Anna's other symptoms could be also traced back to specific experiences earlier in her life. On one occasion, she has been offered a glass of water but had witnessed a dog walk upto the glass and drink from it before she had been able to sip it. Breuer reasoned that this had again affected Anna and had lead to her being unable to drink water later on.

Anna O 's sessions with Breuer over a period of time were productive, and after regressing to these anxious moments, she found that she was able to understand their relation to her present irrational symptoms and in turn, overcome them. She referred to this therapy as 'chimney sweeping' and a 'talking cure' - a term which would become synonymous with psychoanalysis.

In Depth Anna O: Sigmund Freud's Case History

The life and case study of Anna O: how Sigmund Freud was influenced by one woman's experiences. Learn more

Freud took note of the case of Anna O and referred to her in his collaborative work with Breuer, Studies on Hysteria (Freud and Breuer, 1895), a book whose attribution of subconscious memories and anxieties to hysteria would lay the groundwork for his psychodynamic theory of the mind. 1

The composition of the psyche

Freud's interest was in the dynamics of the mind - the conscious and its subconscious influences. He felt that the energy in the psyche was a constant value, and so instead of disappearing from the conscious, it would build up in the subconscious and cause increasing inner tension until it was addressed. For example, if something angers you, the energy of your anger does not expend itself if you internalise it. Rather, it may be transferred to the subconscious, and lead to a repressed resentment which you may be unaware of on a conscious level.

Freud claimed that the human psyche consisted of three separate areas - the id , ego and superego - which compete against one another for control over our behavior.

The Id

The id (meaning 'it' in Latin) represents our most impulsive, untamed desires, and pay no regard for what is acceptable or reasonable.

Innate instincts such as the need for food, water, warmth and sexual desires originate in our id. In a sense, the id is our 'inner child' - it drives our instinctive behavior from birth and expects its demands to be met immediately, regardless of any consequences. The id abides by the Pleasure Principle , which asserts that we seek to maximise pleasure and avoid pain wherever possible.

Also contained within the id is the death drive, a self-destructive impulsiveness which drives us to the end of our life.

The Ego

The second element of the psyche is the ego , which acts as an intermediary between the unreasonable demands of the id and the outside reality. It tries to satisfy the needs of the id as much as is practically possible without necessarily understanding why some demands might be unreasonable.

The ego remains self-centered and does not give consideration to other people's needs or wishes. It acts based on the Reality Principle , which, in contrast to the Pleasure Principle of the id, accepts the limits of what can be obtained from the outside world.

The Superego

The third component of our psyche is the superego . This feels compassion for others and again tries to satisfy the needs of the id, but understands that some of those needs may adversely affect others. It acts as a filter for our behavior and maintains our conscience, leading to an understanding of other people's emotions and to emotional guilt.

Oedipus and Electra complexes

One way of understanding the id, ego and superego is to consider how they dominate our behaviour during the different stages of the life cycle. Freud identified numerous stages of psychosexual development which we experience, including:

Oral stage

When newborn and in the first few months of our lives, we have a need nourishment. As we feed with the mouth, Freud referred to this as the oral stage.

We expect our need to feed to be satisfied as and when we require food. If it is not satisfied, we begin to crying as we possess no concept of patience or understanding when nourishment is unavailable. This stage, during the first year of our lives, is dominated by the id component of our psyche, as the ego and superego have not yet developed.

Anal stage

As we grow older and begin toilet training, defecation becomes a focus of our needs. During this anal stage, we realise that our needs will be met as they are required, but that we might have to wait (such as waiting to eat whilst food is being prepared). Within reason, we might wait a while for it to be prepared before we resort to crying. During this second stage of our lives, the ego develops and is in regular conflict with the impatient demands of the id.

Phallic stage

At the age of around three, our experience with the outside world has helped to develop the ego. At this point, we recognise our physical existence during what Freud describes as the phallic stage. A recognition of sexuality, Freud claimed, leads to a demand for the attention of the mother in males, in competition with the father. In Greek mythology, Oedipus competes for the attention of his mother, Jocasta, and kills his father, Laius, in the process, and Freud named this jostling for affection the Oedipus complex . In girls, a similar process occurs in relation to the father, and is known as the Electra complex .

As a result of such complexes, we recognise that our needs are unreasonable and may feel guilt for experiencing such desires - feelings resulting from the development of the superego.

Freudian Slips

One other way in which the subconscious reveals its desires is through unintentional slips of the tongue in conversation. These mishaps have come to be known as Freudian slips, named after Sigmund Freud.

Throughout our lives, the subconscious drives of the id dictate our desires and behavior, whilst the ego and superego lead us to temper such behavior. Aside from feelings of guilt when we realise these desires, we may repress them so that we do not need to recognise that we experience them. Freud believed that this tension between the demands of the id, ego and superego, and the repression of desire in the subconscious mind, can disrupt the equilibrium of the psyche and lead to feelings of anxiety and other problems, such as in the case of Anna O. One way to resolve this imbalance is to bring repressed feelings and memories into the conscious so that we can rationalise and understand them.

The psychodynamic model today

The explanation of the mind that the psychodynamic model provides gained traction among psychoanalysts during the early 20th Century. However, numerous psychologists have since questioned how effectively it can be used to understand a person's condition.

Critics argue that by attributing our behavior to earlier experiences during childhood, psychodynamic theories ignore our ability to control our behavior using our own free will . The psychodynamic approach takes what is effectively a reductionist view of the human mind and our own self-control over our destinies.

Moreover, psychodynamic theories take a purely internalised view of behavior, ignoring external factors such as the biological influences of genetics on our predisposition to some mental problems. Whilst Freud did provide case studies of clients with regards to his theories, psychodynamic explanations are by their very nature difficult to either prove or disprove, lacking evidence that might be gained empirically through experiments.

Nonetheless, the influence of Freud and the psychodynamic model of the mind can be felt today in the field of psychology. The 'talking cure' remains a key tool for psychoanalysts even when some of Freud's more tenuous theories have been called into question.


Contents

Somewhat related to the subconscious are nonconscious psychic events. The term nonconscious seems to be used in various ways. Some appear to use the term to avoid the somewhat value-laden term "unconscious" or "subconscious", but basically for the same purpose. Others use it to refer to events that can only be observed indirectly (e.g. certain acts of short-term memory), and still others use it to point to events such as brain activity controlled mostly by the limbic system (e.g. emotional reactions to certain smells). Not surprisingly, there are no sharply delineated conventions for distinguishing exactly between the nonconscious and the subconscious -- partly because they interact with each other, and partly because, as is so often the case, psychologists are unable to agree on the definitions.

The subconscious mind is halfway between the conscious thinking mind and the unconscious mind or collective unconscious. The thinking mind would be the consciousness and is able to reason and make meaning of things. The subconscious mind is the recording mechanism that records information based on how it was perceived by the judging thinking mind. The unconscious mind is a record of things how they innately are without judgement and is thought to be outside of time and space so therefore is a record of everything in the past, present and future. The subconscious mind takes info from the conscious mind and puts it into the unconscious mind and likewise, the subconscious mind pulls information from the unconscious mind and surfaces through the conscious mind in the form of ideas, inspirations, etc.


Psychology of the Unconscious: What makes the Unconscious Mind so unique?

Hello, thank you for your submission. Please note that we require all video submissions to be accompanied by one or more peer-reviewed citations. If this submission does not have accompanying citations, it will be removed. If you have any questions, please message the moderators.

I am a bot, and this action was performed automatically. Please contact the moderators of this subreddit if you have any questions or concerns.

Ever wonder why dreams don't make sense to you went you wake up? Also out of 3 levels of consciousness which consciousness is responsible for our pain and suffering!!
Understand the psychology of the unconscious mind with the help of Freud's Iceberg Theory presented by
Sigmund Freud (6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939)
an Austrian neurologist and learn how to program your unconscious mind
Psychology of the Unconscious Mind
Hope this video adds value to your time#Mentalhealth #mentalhealthawareness #Psychology
Cheers!
References:

American Psychological Association. APA concise dictionary of psychology. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 2009. Print.

Freud, S. (1894). The neuro-psychoses of defense. SE, 3: 41-61.

Freud, S. (1915). The unconscious. SE, 14: 159-204.

Freud, S. (1961). The resistances to psycho-analysis. In The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud, Volume


The Three Levels of Human Consciousness

Buddhism has a sophisticated theory of mind but has undoubtedly contained the concepts of conscious and subconscious for over thousands of years. Sigmund Freud made these concepts popular throughout the Western world at the turn of the 20th century.

The first level of consciousness is known as the conscious state, and this refers to our immediate awareness that you are experiencing as you read this. We make use of our conscious mind when we take in input from our senses, analyse the information, and then make decisions based on this information.

The conscious mind consists of what we are aware of at any given point in time. It includes the things that we are thinking about right now, whether it’s in the front of our minds or the back. If we’re aware of it, then it is in the conscious mind.

Robert Collier explained the conscious mind expertly when he said, “It is only through your conscious mind that you can reach the subconscious. Your conscious mind is the porter at the door, the watchman at the gate. It is to the conscious mind that the subconscious looks for all its impressions.”

For example, at this moment you may be consciously aware of the information you’re reading, the sound of the music you’re listening to, or a conversation you’re having. All of the thoughts that pass through your mind, the sensations and perceptions from the outside world, and the memories that you bring into your awareness are all part of that conscious experience.

The next level of consciousness, the subconscious (or preconscious), is the stuff from which dreams are made. We can consider it as the storehouse of all remembered experiences, impressions that are left on the mind by such experiences, and tendencies that are awakened or reinforced by these impressions.

Every experience you’ve ever had, every thought, every impression lives in the subconscious mind and influences our patterns of thought and behaviour far more than we realise.

The subconscious holds information that is just below the surface of awareness. An individual can retrieve such information with relative ease, and we usually refer to these as memories.

For example, if someone asked you right now what your middle name was, you would be able to recall it, or when your father’s birthday was or when it last rained. The memories of past experiences live in what Freud referred to as the subconscious part of our minds, that we might not be aware of one moment, and then fully focussed on the next.

What we accomplish in our life, work and relationships will usually be determined by the habits that we develop over time. The practice of setting priorities and getting on with important day-to-day tasks is both a mental and physical skill. As such, this habit is learnable through practice and repetition until it locks into our subconscious mind and becomes a permanent part of our behaviour.

The final level of consciousness is known as the unconscious. This is made up of thoughts, memories, and primitive/instinctual desires that are buried deep within ourselves, far below our conscious awareness. Even though we’re not aware of their existence, they have a significant influence on our behaviour.

Although our behaviours tend to indicate the unconscious forces driving them, we can’t readily access the information which is stored in the unconscious mind. Throughout our childhood, we gathered many different memories and experiences that formed the beliefs, fears and insecurities that we carry today. However, we cannot recall most of these memories. They are unconscious forces that drive our behaviours.

For example, things in your unconscious that might be forgotten include negative experiences from your past or a traumatic event that you pushed out of your subconscious. There might be some life experiences or thoughts that are too threatening for some people to fully acknowledge and are therefore mediated by the preconscious/subconscious part of the mind.

‘Freud’s Iceberg Theory’ uses the imagery of an iceberg to separate these ‘3 levels of consciousness’. Similarly, we can use an iceberg as a helpful metaphor to understand how much of ourselves we choose to freely reveal to the other people whom we interact with on a day-today basis.

As an iceberg floats in the water, the vast mass of it remains below the surface. Only a small percentage of the whole is visible above the surface, and the largest and most influential part remains unseen below the surface.

In precisely the same way, each of us will often have a part of ourselves that we reveal to others, with the larger part of ourselves being deeply submerged that no-one ever gets to see.

T he Achologist is the official online publication for Achology, the Academy of Modern Applied Psychology for professional practitioners and life coaches.


Questions to ask yourself

You’re walking in the woods and you’re with somebody.

Who are you with?

The person you thought of is the most important person in your life at the moment.

You keep going through the woods and you hear some rustling in the bushes and an animal pops out.

What’s the animal? And what’s the first thing you do when it comes out?

The size of the animal is the amount of your stress, and how you reacted to seeing the email is how you react to your stress.

You go further into the woods and you come to an opening and there’s a house.

What’s the size of the house? And do you see a fence?

The size of the house is the size of your ambition and if you saw a fence that means you’re narrow-minded. If there's no fence, then you’re more open-minded.

You decide to explore this house. You go to the dining room and you see a dining table.

Do you see anything on or around the table?

The more you see on the table then the happier you are in your life at the moment.

Subscribe to our newsletter.

After seeing the dining room, you want to explore the rest of the house and you see a cup on the ground.

What is the cup made out of? And what do you do when you see the cup?

The durability of the material of the cup represents the durability of the relationship with the person you said you thought of in the first question. What you do when you see the cup, is what you want to do with or to that person.

You then decide you want to go to the backyard and you see a body of water.

What type of body of water is it? You also want to get across, what do you do to get across?

The size of the water is the size of your sexual desire. The more water that touches you body when crossing the body of water, the more you want to get a little freaky in bed.


Preconscious

In psychoanalytic theory, knowledge, images, emotions, and other mental phenomena that are not present in immediate consciousness but are quickly accessible and can be brought into consciousness easily without the use of special techniques.

Sigmund Freud theorized that the human mind was divided into three parts: the conscious, preconscious, and unconscious. This schema first appeared in his earliest model of mental functioning, published in his classic work, The Interpretation of Dreams (1900). Freud believed that the preconscious functions as an intermediate or transitional level of the mind&mdashbetween the unconscious and the conscious&mdashthrough which repressed material passes.

Freud described this arrangement spatially, depicting the unconscious as a large room crowded with thoughts and the conscious area as a smaller reception room, with a doorkeeper between the two rooms selectively admitting thoughts from the unconscious to the consciousness. Those thoughts that are restricted to the unconscious area remain repressed, meaning that they are totally invisible to the conscious self, and can be recovered only by hypnosis, free association, or some other technique. Not all thoughts allowed into the "reception area" necessarily become conscious, however. Rather, they become available for consciousness, with one or another becoming conscious at a given time when attention is drawn to it in some way. Thus, the smaller room might more properly be thought of as a preconscious area, in which are gathered all of the thoughts that are not deliberately repressed. Because of their relative closeness to each other, Freud actually grouped the conscious and preconscious systems together in contrast to the unconscious, emphasizing that thoughts in the conscious and preconscious categories do not differ in any essential way and can be distinguished only functionally. A preconscious thought can quickly become conscious by receiving attention, and a conscious thought can slip into the preconscious when attention is withdrawn from it.


Unconscious Mind

Creativity as the working of the ‘ unconscious mind ’ is in the class of ‘magic’ theories (such as divine inspiration). It offers no real explanation of the creative process, merely attributing it to a mysterious (and very creative) unconscious mind. It is espoused by Hadamard and others in his book on mathematical invention, and is, of course, very much influenced by the Freudian ideas prevailing at the time. The scenario is that for a time one works consciously on a problem, and when one fails, one's unconscious mind somehow continues working and mysteriously accomplishes what the conscious one could not. From the perspective of modern cognitive science, this is not very helpful, because all cognitive processes are unconscious, and as such, require an explanation, not merely an anthropomorphic attribution to another, wiser (or more primitive) mind analogous to the conscious one.

The problem of explaining creative and non-creative cognition consists of providing a mechanism for all of our unconscious processing. The only informative aspect of the ‘unconscious-mind’ model is the attention it draws to the incompleteness of the role of conscious, deliberate efforts in the creative process. Note, however, that Pasteur's dictum had already indicated that preparation was necessary but not sufficient. (Moreover, ‘conscious, deliberate effort’ is not even sufficient to explain such altogether uncreative cognitive activities as remembering a name, recognizing a face, or adding two and two.)


Certified Life Coach

You will receive the tools to start working with clients in an empowering way to help them reach their goals as well as be personally mentored on your own individuation process. The emphasis is on the psychology of coaching, how to use visualization and create your own effective guided visualizations for clients and the power of the unconscious mind. Learn the basic concepts of Jungian Theory, including ego/persona, shadow work, dream yoga, working with archetypes and collective unconscious. Understand how to incorporate Jungian Theory and eastern philosophy in a unique way to empower clients to become their true selves.

Who is this for?

Those who want to become a Certified Life Coach in the CreativeMind Method or get advanced training in the CreativeMind Method to use in their business or life. Great for women who aspire to be leaders in their field and excel in their own personal growth.

What will you get?

Learn core competencies in CreativeMind Method to coach others in the CreativeMind Method and also apply it to your life and work.

What is included?

  • (12) Pre-Recorded Video Module Trainings, with Handouts and Exercises for Each
  • (12) 60-minute Live Group Coaching Sessions with Debra or Robert
  • (12) 45-minute Small Group Coaching Labs with Master Coach Instruction
  • Private Coaching Sessions with a Coach Mentor
  • Weekly Peer Coaching Practicum
  • Dedicated Coach Throughout the Program
  • Coaching Toolkit with Scripts, Worksheets, Exercises and Tools
  • Bonus Business Building Modules
  • Student Forum with 24-7 Access to the Group
  • 1-Year Membership to International Jungian Coaching Association
  • Awarded title of “Certified Jungian Life Coach” with the International Jungian Coaching Association

Program Length: Six (6) Months

Next Class Start Date: September 22, 2021

Participation: 100% Virtual Online Training — Can be taken from anywhere in the world.


Unconscious or Subconscious?

ARCHIVED CONTENT: As a service to our readers, Harvard Health Publishing provides access to our library of archived content. Please note the date each article was posted or last reviewed. No content on this site, regardless of date, should ever be used as a substitute for direct medical advice from your doctor or other qualified clinician.

A dear friend got caught up in a debate about these terms during a holiday dinner some time ago. I wasn’t too surprised this past week when another friend asked me which term was the right one. It is hard to find two people who agree on “proper” definitions for these words.

The term “unconscious” or “unconscious mind” is most closely associated with Freud and psychoanalysis, but the general notion predates Freud by hundreds if not thousands of years. For Freud, however, the idea of memories, feelings, and other mental content outside conscious awareness took on a new, practical significance. It was a key element of the theory he was developing to explain the causes of mental disorders and how to treat them. Put in the simplest terms, Freud theorized that hidden mental contents were making people “ill.” As he understood it, these mental contents had been “repressed” and made unconscious. It was a broad and powerful idea—and if debates over dinner are any evidence—one that continues to be interesting.

As for the term “subconscious,” Freud used it interchangeably with “unconscious” at the outset. The words are similarly close but not identical in German (subconscious is das Unterbewusste unconscious is das Unbewusste). But he eventually stuck with the latter term to avoid confusion. He couldn’t have predicted that the confusion would still exist after more than 100 years of discussion.

As a general rule, then, in most of the professional literature where mental functioning is concerned (including not just psychoanalysis, but also psychiatry, psychology, and neuroscience, among others), writers—like Freud—tend to use the word “unconscious” rather than “subconscious.” Although the word “subconscious” continues to appear in the lay literature, it is rarely defined carefully and may or may not be synonymous with “unconscious.”

In professional writing, the meaning of “unconscious” varies somewhat depending on context. Generations of psychoanalysts have debated the function of an unconscious, or how and why certain mental contents get repressed. The way that an analyst understands the unconscious often is instrumental for how he or she tries to fulfill one of the central aims of the “talking cure,” which is to help a patient achieve relief by making the unconscious conscious.

Some neuroscientists find the concept of an unconscious to be a problem, because the terminology implies that the unconscious is a place, a true anatomical location, as it were, in the brain. Freud, as a neurologist, did think in terms of neurobiology. But he didn’t have twenty-first century tools to help him analyze the structure, function and complex interactions among nerve cells, neural circuits, or brain regions.

Today, most psychoanalysts and psychodynamically-oriented therapists do not think of the unconscious as a neuroanatomical structure. Rather, they use the term as shorthand to refer to a complex, but familiar, psychological phenomenon. That is, a good deal and perhaps most of mental life happens without our knowing much about it. Neuroscientists are clued into these processes too. So they appreciate that any understanding of the neurobiology of mental life must go beyond conscious thoughts and feelings.

These mental processes are so interesting to us, perhaps, because we know that much is at stake. So much that moves us happens outside our awareness and outside our control—we believe (and maybe it’s true) that greater awareness will lead to greater self-control or greater well-being. And maybe that’s why, when the French novelist Marcel Proust wrote about a character biting a cookie and being flooded with memories, we too are moved. It is a reminder that there is so much to know that we don’t know, and it seems like such a lucky accident when we discover what was hiding within us all the time.


Watch the video: How Your Unconscious Mind Rules Your Behaviour: Leonard Mlodinow at TEDxReset 2013 (July 2022).


Comments:

  1. Gobha

    You are not right. I'm sure. Write in PM.

  2. Lundy

    Yes ... By the way ... I should get myself together .. Drink a beer;)

  3. Saqr

    Found a site with a topic that interests you.



Write a message